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The atom, proton, neutron and electron.
An introduction to orbitals.
More intuition on orbitals. Touching on electron configuration.
Introduction to using the periodic table to determine electron configuration.
Figuring out configurations for the d-block elements.
Looking at valence electrons to figure out reactivity.
Properties of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metals. Halogens and noble gases.
What an ion is. Using the periodic table to understand how difficult it is to ionize an atom.
Electronegativity, metallic nature and atomic radius.
Introduction to ionic, covalent, polar covalent and metallic bonds.
Introduction to molecular and empirical formulas. Calculating molecular mass.
Introduction to the idea of a mole as a number (vs. an animal).
Figuring out the empirical formula from a molecules mass composition.
Another exercise converting a mass composition to an empirical formula.
The art of balancing equations in chemistry!
Introduction to stoichiometry.
Stoichiometry problem where we have a limiting reagent!
Intuition behind the ideal gas equation: PV=nRT.
Figuring out the number of moles of gas we have using the ideal gas equation: PV=nRT.
PV/T is a constant. Figuring out the volume of an ideal gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP).
Figuring out the mass of Oxygen we have.
Figuring out the molar mass of a mystery molecule at STP.
Figuring out the partial pressures of various gases in a container.
Introduction to the states or phases of matter.
More on Plasma and Hydrogen bonds.
Specifict heat and phase changes: Calculating how much heat is needed to convert 200g of ice at -10C to 110 degree steam.
How much ice at -10 degrees C is necessary to get 500g of water down to 0 degrees C?
Van Der Waals Forces: London Dispersion Forces, Dipole Attractions, and Hydrogen Bonds.
Covalent Networks, Metallic, and Ionic Crystals: Some of the strongest molecular structures.
Vapor Pressure, Volatility, and Evaporation.
Suspensions, Colloids and Solutions. The difference between Molarity and Molality.
Solubility of salt and gas solutes in liquid solvent.
Raising or lowering the boiling or freezing point of a solution by adding solute.
Kinetics, activation energy, activated complex and catalysts.
Equilibrium reactions and constants.
Correcting a mistake and learning a bit about ion size.
A probabilistic look at how molecules react to develop the intuition behind the equilibrium constant formula.
A more concrete attempt at showing how the probabilities of molecules reacting is related to their concentration.
Ignoring the solution or the solid state molecules when calculating the equilibrium constant.
Le Chatelier's Principle regarding the "stressing" of reactions in equilibrium.
Autoionization of water into hydronium and hydroxide ions. pH, pOH, and pKa.
Arrhenius, Bronsted Lowry, and Lewis Acids and Bases.
Calculating the pH or pOH of strong acids and bases.
Calculating the pH of a weak acid.
pH of .2 M of NH3 (weak base).
Introduction to conjugate acids and bases.
The pKa and pKb relationship between conjugate acids and bases (both of which are weak).
Buffers and the Hendersen-Hasselbalch equation.
Strong acid titration and equivalence point.
Equivalence point when titrating a weak acid.
Figuring out the pKa of an unknown weak acid from the half equivalence point.
Making sure you fully understand titration curves.
Oxidation and reduction. Oxidation states.
More practice calculating oxidation states.
Correcting an error in the last video regarding hydrogen peroxide.
Oxidation reduction (or redox) reactions.
Redox reactions to drive Galvanic Cells.
Alpha, Beta, Gamma Decay and Positron Emission.
Introduction to half-life.
Showing that N(t)=Ne^(-kt) describes the amount of a radioactive substance we have at time T. For students with background in Calculus. Not necessary for intro chemistry class.
Introduction to Exponential Decay.
A few more examples of exponential decay.
The difference between macrostates and microstates. Thermodynamic equilibrium.
Using theoretically quasi-static and/or reversible processes to stay pretty much at equilibrium.
First law of thermodynamic and Internal Energy.
Getting more intuition of internal energy, heat, and work.
How a system can do work by expanding.
Why work from expansion is the area under the curve of a PV-diagram.
Conceptual proof that the internal energy of an ideal gas system is 3/2 PV.
Isothermic and Adiabatic processes. Calculating the work done by an isothermic process. Seeing that it is the same as the heat added.
Introduction to the Carnot Cycle and Carnot Heat Engine.
Proof of the volume ratios in a Carnot Cycle.
Prroof that S (or entropy) is a valid state variable.
Clarifying that the thermodynamic definition of Entropy requires a reversible system.
Long video explaining why entropy is a measure of the number of states a system can take on (mathy, but mind-blowing).
A discussion of what entropy is and what it isn't.
Maxwell's Demon: A thought experiment that seems to defy the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.
More clarification as to what entropy is and what entropy is not.
Definition of efficiency for a heat engine. Efficiency of a Carnot Engine.
Seeing how we can scale and or reverse a Carnot Engine (to make a refrigerator).
Proving that a Carnot Engine is the most efficient engine.
Standard heat of formation or standard enthalpy change of formation.
Using Hess's Law and standard heats of formation to determine the enthalpy change for reactions.
Intuition behind why spontaneity is driven by enthalpy, entropy and temperature. Introduction to Gibbs free energy.
Determining if a reaction is spontaneous by calculating the change in Gibbs Free Energy.
More formal understanding of why a negative change in Gibbs Free Energy implies a spontaneous, irreversible reaction.
A look at why the "proof" of the relation between changes in Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity is wrong in many textbooks.
Figuring grams of reactants and product produced from reaction of phosphorous and chlorine.
Stoichiometry Example Problem 2.
Limiting Reactant Example Problem 1.
Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry.
Example of Finding Reactant Empirical Formula.
Stoichiometry of a Reaction in Solution.
Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution.
Molecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition. Example 2.9 from Kotz Chemistry book.
Using acid-base titration to find mass of oxalic acid.
Spectrophotometry, Transmittance, Absorbance and the Beer-Lambert Law.
Spectrophotometry Example - Determining concentration based on absorbance.
Hess's Law Example.
Vapor pressure example using the Ideal Gas Law.
Specific Heat Capacity and Enthalpy of Vaporization example.
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