Chemistry

Incarcat la data: 19 Aprilie 2011

Autor: Admin

By Salman Khan - Khan Academy
Course Description:
Videos on chemistry (roughly covering a first-year high school or college course).
Lectures:
Lecture 1 - Introduction to the Atom

The atom, proton, neutron and electron.

 
Lecture 2 - Orbitals

An introduction to orbitals.

 
Lecture 3 - More on Orbitals and Electron Configuration

More intuition on orbitals. Touching on electron configuration.

 
Lecture 4 - Electron Configuration 1

Introduction to using the periodic table to determine electron configuration.

 
Lecture 5 - Electron Configuration 2

Figuring out configurations for the d-block elements.

 
Lecture 6 - Valence Electrons

Looking at valence electrons to figure out reactivity.

 
Lecture 7 - Groups of the Periodic Table

Properties of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metals. Halogens and noble gases.

 
Lecture 8 - Periodic Table Trends: Ionization

What an ion is. Using the periodic table to understand how difficult it is to ionize an atom.

 
Lecture 9 - Other Periodic Table Trends

Electronegativity, metallic nature and atomic radius.

 
Lecture 10 - Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonds

Introduction to ionic, covalent, polar covalent and metallic bonds.

 
Lecture 11 - Molecular and Emperical Formulas

Introduction to molecular and empirical formulas. Calculating molecular mass.

 
Lecture 12 - The Mole and Avogadro's Number

Introduction to the idea of a mole as a number (vs. an animal).

 
Lecture 13 - Formula From Mass Composition

Figuring out the empirical formula from a molecules mass composition.

 
Lecture 14 - Another Mass Composition Problem

Another exercise converting a mass composition to an empirical formula.

 
Lecture 15 - Balancing Chemical Equations

The art of balancing equations in chemistry!

 
Lecture 16 - Stoichiometry

Introduction to stoichiometry.

 
Lecture 17 - Stoichiometry: Limiting Reagent

Stoichiometry problem where we have a limiting reagent!

 
Lecture 18 - Ideal Gas Equation: PV=nRT

Intuition behind the ideal gas equation: PV=nRT.

 
Lecture 19 - Ideal Gas Equation Example 1

Figuring out the number of moles of gas we have using the ideal gas equation: PV=nRT.

 
Lecture 20 - Ideal Gas Equation Example 2

PV/T is a constant. Figuring out the volume of an ideal gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP).

 
Lecture 21 - Ideal Gas Equation Example 3

Figuring out the mass of Oxygen we have.

 
Lecture 22 - Ideal Gas Equation Example 4

Figuring out the molar mass of a mystery molecule at STP.

 
Lecture 23 - Partial Pressure

Figuring out the partial pressures of various gases in a container.

 
Lecture 24 - States of Matter

Introduction to the states or phases of matter.

 
Lecture 25 - States of Matter Follow-up

More on Plasma and Hydrogen bonds.

 
Lecture 26 - Specific Heat, Heat of Fusion and Vaporization

Specifict heat and phase changes: Calculating how much heat is needed to convert 200g of ice at -10C to 110 degree steam.

 
Lecture 27 - Chilling Water Problem

How much ice at -10 degrees C is necessary to get 500g of water down to 0 degrees C?

 
Lecture 28 - Van Der Waals Forces

Van Der Waals Forces: London Dispersion Forces, Dipole Attractions, and Hydrogen Bonds.

 
Lecture 29 - Covalent Networks, Metallic, and Ionic Crystals

Covalent Networks, Metallic, and Ionic Crystals: Some of the strongest molecular structures.

 
Lecture 30 - Vapor Pressure

Vapor Pressure, Volatility, and Evaporation.

 
Lecture 31 - Suspensions, Colloids and Solutions

Suspensions, Colloids and Solutions. The difference between Molarity and Molality.

 
Lecture 32 - Solubility

Solubility of salt and gas solutes in liquid solvent.

 
Lecture 33 - Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Supression

Raising or lowering the boiling or freezing point of a solution by adding solute.

 
Lecture 34 - Introduction to Kinetics

Kinetics, activation energy, activated complex and catalysts.

 
Lecture 35 - Reactions in Equilibrium

Equilibrium reactions and constants.

 
Lecture 36 - Mini-video on Ion Size

Correcting a mistake and learning a bit about ion size.

 
Lecture 37 - Keq Intuition

A probabilistic look at how molecules react to develop the intuition behind the equilibrium constant formula.

 
Lecture 38 - Keq Derivation Intuition

A more concrete attempt at showing how the probabilities of molecules reacting is related to their concentration.

 
Lecture 39 - Heterogenous Equilibrium

Ignoring the solution or the solid state molecules when calculating the equilibrium constant.

 
Lecture 40 - Le Chatelier's Principle

Le Chatelier's Principle regarding the "stressing" of reactions in equilibrium.

 
Lecture 41 - Introduction to pH, pOH, and pKw

Autoionization of water into hydronium and hydroxide ions. pH, pOH, and pKa.

 
Lecture 42 - Acid Base Introduction

Arrhenius, Bronsted Lowry, and Lewis Acids and Bases.

 
Lecture 43 - pH, pOH of Strong Acids and Bases

Calculating the pH or pOH of strong acids and bases.

 
Lecture 44 - pH of a Weak Acid

Calculating the pH of a weak acid.

 
Lecture 45 - pH of a Weak Base

pH of .2 M of NH3 (weak base).

 
Lecture 46 - Conjugate Acids and Bases

Introduction to conjugate acids and bases.

 
Lecture 47 - pKa and pKb Relationship

The pKa and pKb relationship between conjugate acids and bases (both of which are weak).

 
Lecture 48 - Buffers and Hendersen-Hasselbalch

Buffers and the Hendersen-Hasselbalch equation.

 
Lecture 49 - Strong Acid Titration

Strong acid titration and equivalence point.

 
Lecture 50 - Weak Acid Titration

Equivalence point when titrating a weak acid.

 
Lecture 51 - Half Equivalence Point

Figuring out the pKa of an unknown weak acid from the half equivalence point.

 
Lecture 52 - Titration Roundup

Making sure you fully understand titration curves.

 
Lecture 53 - Introduction to Oxidation States

Oxidation and reduction. Oxidation states.

 
Lecture 54 - More on Oxidation States

More practice calculating oxidation states.

 
Lecture 55 - Hydrogen Peroxide Correction

Correcting an error in the last video regarding hydrogen peroxide.

 
Lecture 56 - Redox Reactions

Oxidation reduction (or redox) reactions.

 
Lecture 57 - Galvanic Cells

Redox reactions to drive Galvanic Cells.

 
Lecture 58 - Types of Decay

Alpha, Beta, Gamma Decay and Positron Emission.

 
Lecture 59 - Half-Life

Introduction to half-life.

 
Lecture 60 - Exponential Decay Formula Proof

Showing that N(t)=Ne^(-kt) describes the amount of a radioactive substance we have at time T. For students with background in Calculus. Not necessary for intro chemistry class.

 
Lecture 61 - Introduction to Exponential Decay

Introduction to Exponential Decay.

 
Lecture 62 - More Exponential Decay Examples

A few more examples of exponential decay.

 
Lecture 63 - Macrostates and Microstates

The difference between macrostates and microstates. Thermodynamic equilibrium.

 
Lecture 64 - Quasistatic and Reversible Processes

Using theoretically quasi-static and/or reversible processes to stay pretty much at equilibrium.

 
Lecture 65 - First Law of Thermodynamics/Internal Energy

First law of thermodynamic and Internal Energy.

 
Lecture 66 - More on Internal Energy

Getting more intuition of internal energy, heat, and work.

 
Lecture 67 - Work from Expansion

How a system can do work by expanding.

 
Lecture 68 - PV-diagrams and Expansion Work

Why work from expansion is the area under the curve of a PV-diagram.

 
Lecture 69 - Proof: U=(3/2)PV or U=(3/2)nRT

Conceptual proof that the internal energy of an ideal gas system is 3/2 PV.

 
Lecture 70 - Work Done by Isothermic Process

Isothermic and Adiabatic processes. Calculating the work done by an isothermic process. Seeing that it is the same as the heat added.

 
Lecture 71 - Carnot Cycle and Carnot Engine

Introduction to the Carnot Cycle and Carnot Heat Engine.

 
Lecture 72 - Proof: Volume Ratios in a Carnot Cycle

Proof of the volume ratios in a Carnot Cycle.

 
Lecture 73 - Proof: S (or Entropy) is a Valid State Variable

Prroof that S (or entropy) is a valid state variable.

 
Lecture 74 - Thermodynamic Entropy Definition Clarification

Clarifying that the thermodynamic definition of Entropy requires a reversible system.

 
Lecture 75 - Reconciling Thermodynamic and State Definitions of Entropy

Long video explaining why entropy is a measure of the number of states a system can take on (mathy, but mind-blowing).

 
Lecture 76 - Entropy Intuition

A discussion of what entropy is and what it isn't.

 
Lecture 77 - Maxwell's Demon

Maxwell's Demon: A thought experiment that seems to defy the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.

 
Lecture 78 - More on Energy

More clarification as to what entropy is and what entropy is not.

 
Lecture 79 - Efficiency of a Carnot Engine

Definition of efficiency for a heat engine. Efficiency of a Carnot Engine.

 
Lecture 80 - Carnot Efficiency 2: Reversing the Cycle

Seeing how we can scale and or reverse a Carnot Engine (to make a refrigerator).

 
Lecture 81 - Carnot Efficiency 3: Proving That it is the Most Efficient

Proving that a Carnot Engine is the most efficient engine.

 
Lecture 82 - Heat of Formation

Standard heat of formation or standard enthalpy change of formation.

 
Lecture 83 - Hess's Law and Reaction Enthalpy Change

Using Hess's Law and standard heats of formation to determine the enthalpy change for reactions.

 
Lecture 84 - Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity

Intuition behind why spontaneity is driven by enthalpy, entropy and temperature. Introduction to Gibbs free energy.

 
Lecture 85 - Gibbs Free Energy Example

Determining if a reaction is spontaneous by calculating the change in Gibbs Free Energy.

 
Lecture 86 - Rigorous Gibbs Free Energy/Spontaneity Relationship

More formal understanding of why a negative change in Gibbs Free Energy implies a spontaneous, irreversible reaction.

 
Lecture 87 - A Look at a Seductive But Wrong Gibbs/Spontaneity Proof

A look at why the "proof" of the relation between changes in Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity is wrong in many textbooks.

 
Lecture 88 - Stoichiometry Example Problem 1

Figuring grams of reactants and product produced from reaction of phosphorous and chlorine.

 
Lecture 89 - Stoichiometry Example Problem 2

Stoichiometry Example Problem 2.

 
Lecture 90 - Limiting Reactant Example Problem 1

Limiting Reactant Example Problem 1.

 
Lecture 91 - Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry

Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry.

 
Lecture 92 - Example of Finding Reactant Emperical Formula

Example of Finding Reactant Empirical Formula.

 
Lecture 93 - Stoichiometry of a Reaction in Solution

Stoichiometry of a Reaction in Solution.

 
Lecture 94 - Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution

Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution.

 
Lecture 95 - Molecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition

Molecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition. Example 2.9 from Kotz Chemistry book.

 
Lecture 96 - Acid Base Titration

Using acid-base titration to find mass of oxalic acid.

 
Lecture 97 - Spectrophotometry Introduction

Spectrophotometry, Transmittance, Absorbance and the Beer-Lambert Law.

 
Lecture 98 - Spectrophotometry Example

Spectrophotometry Example - Determining concentration based on absorbance.

 
 
Lecture 100 - Vapor Pressure Example

Vapor pressure example using the Ideal Gas Law.

 
Lecture 101 - Change of State Example

Specific Heat Capacity and Enthalpy of Vaporization example.

 

Source: http://academicearth.org/courses/chemistry

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