Referat Oameni de stiinta romani

Incarcat la data: 27 Martie 2006

Autor: luminita carol

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CONSTANTIN PARHON (1874 - ?) Romanian endocrinologist; a scientist of world reputation; Professor at the University of Bucharest. Member of the Romanian Academy and member of other Romanian and foreign Academies and scientific bodies. C. I. Parhon was the founder of the Romanian School of Endocrinology and one of the science founders in the world. Practicing first as a neurologist and then as a psychiatrist, C.I. Parhon could investigate the cell structure of the spinal marrow, and demonstrate that there were vegetative centres on the cortex. He succeeded to largely collect clinical evidence as to psychosis, nervous syphylis, epilepsy, multiple hallucinations. He left behind the anatomo-clinical approach made by the then neuropsychiatric medical school, to promote new and original ideas in the field of medical science. He made fundamental contributions to the progress of endocrinology, and in 1909 he co-authored with M. Goldstein the first book on endocrinology ("Secretiile interne"/"Internal Secretions")ever written in the world. He was among the first medical scientists to be preoccupied with the ovary internal secretion, and to emphasise the role of parathyroid glands in the calcium metabolism and of the thyroid gland in the lipidoses and glucidoses, etc. His contribution to the endocrinological diseases clinic also extended to the isolation and description of new syndromes: the hyperhydropexic syndrome (called Parhon's syndrom) and the nanism of hyperhypophysis. He reached important conclusions in the research work done in relation with the biochemistry of endocrinological syndromes, either clinical or experimental, the endocrine importance of epiphysis and thymus, as well as the age biology. Main works: "Handbook of Endocrinology" written together with M. Goldstein and St. -M. Milcu (3 volumes, 1945-1949), " Old Age and its Treatment" (1948), "The Age Biology" (1955), "Selected Works" (5 volumes, 1954-1962). ANGHEL SALIGNY (1854-1925) Romanian civil engineer and scientist. Professor at National School for Bridges and Roadways, and member of the Romanian Academy. He produced the lay-out for and realised in 1882 the construction of the railway bridges on the line between Adjud and Tg Ocna, and the double way viaduct and railway bridge on the Siret, at Cosmesti, to be the bridgework which made his reputation as civil engineer. He dedicated the years between 1884 and 1889 to constructing shipbuilding docks and warehouses in Galati and Braila. The originality of his solutions for these constructions should be remarked: fascine works and pile foundations for the embankment, the Danube connected basins for bins, and for the first time in the world , he made use of reinforced concrete to construct silos. His excellency work was the lay-out in 1888 and the construction between 1890 and 1895 of the bridge over the Danube at Cernavoda, which at the time of its being erected, was the longest in Europe. Saligny's lay-out for the bridgework was double innovative: a new projecting beam system for the bridge superstructure and the replacement of puddled iron by soft steel as building material for the bridge planks. He directed the Constanta harbour set up activities, being the first in Romania who used reinforced steel piles and foundation rafts for harbour constructions and who produced lay -outs for silos and oil stations. Saligny's construction works also included the Tg Jiu-Filiasi railway, the railway tunnel on the Mostistea Valley, the Ramadan harbour (Giurgiu), etc. From 1907 to 1916 he was President of the Romanian Academy. VICTOR BABES (1854-1926) Romanian physician; He was Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology at the Faculty of Medicine in Bucharest and member of the Romanian Academy. He was among the scientists who created modern microbiology. He worked out the first treatise on bacteriology in the world. ("Bacteria and their role in the anatomy and pathological histology of contagious diseases", co-written with French scientist A. V. Cornil, 1885). He made essential, worldwide known investigations on rabies, leprosy, diphtheria, tuberculosis, etc. He also identified in the cells of the brain of animals sick with rabies, the Babes-Negri diagnostics-relevant corpuscles. He discovered more than 50 new germs (the pseudobacillus of glanders, the germs in the paratyphoid group, etc.) and initiated serotherapy. His important researches on the microbial antagonisms took him to being one of the first in promoting modern ideas on antibiotics. Babes's activity was highly influential in the progress of veterinary science. He succeeded to reorientate it in keeping close to the objectives of the preventive medicine. IT was Babes who first used anti-rabic vaccination in Romania, to even improve it through combining it, in hopeless cases, with serotherapy. He developed the first rationalized model of a thermostat. He also proposed tinting methods for bacteria and mushrooms in cultures and histologicals, etc. He was highly preoccupied with solving the problems in the preventive medicine (water supply in towns and villages, scientific organisation of the antiepidemic campaigns, etc.). Babes, who loved people, took pains to put science in their service and improve life quality. For this, he showed perseverance in investigating the origins of mass spread diseases (pellagra, tuberculosis etc.), and in revealing the social roots of such diseases. All his scientific and social activity give evidence of his materialistic philosophical view, to be found mainly in his "Considerations about the relation of natural sciences with philosophy" (1879) and in "Faith and Science" (1924). EMIL RACOVITA (1868-1947) Romanian biologist. Member and president (1927-1929) of the Romanian Academy, and Professor at the University of Cluj for more than twenty years (1920-1947). He was on Amundsen's "Belgica" on its cruise to the Antartic continent, during which, as a naturalist, his botanical and zoological samplings were quite impressive as did his, by now classical, researches on whales prove to be. He was assistant director of the sea zoo research station at Banyuls-sur-Mer (France), and of the Comparative Anatomy Laboratory from Sorbonne, and co-director of the international journal "Archives de zoologie experimentale et generale". In 1920 at the University of Cluj he founded the first Institute of speleology in the world, and taught the first general biology course in Romania. As the mentor of biospeleology, he defined it the science of life in the subterranean world (caves and underground waters). With respect to biological evolution, he defended the Evolutionism from idealistic misinterpretations and stances. Thanks to his researches on systematics, ecology and evolution of underground animals, a philogenetic approach in systematics could be developed. Being truly fond of his country nature, Emil Racovita was among the first to propose and take effective measures for the preservation of the natural monuments in Romania. In addition to scientific papers, he published articles on the organisation of education and of scientific research. Main works: "Essai sur les problemes biospeologiques" (1907), "Speleology" (1927), "Evolution and its Problems" (1929). MIRCEA ELIADE (1907-1986) Mircea Eliade was an erudite in the comparative history of religions, novelist, essayist, philosopher. He was born in 1907, March 8, in Bucharest and had died in 1986, April 22, in Chicago - US. Mircea Eliade was a personality of mondial renown. His father was Gh. Eliade an infantry capitain. Being a precocious child, he had made his debut at 13 years old, at the Popular Sciences Newspaper. He had spent his childhood in Rmnicu-Sarat, Cernavoda and Bucuresti. In his adolescence, being student at the "Spiru Haret" highschool he had written articles and short stories. Mircea Eliade have had finished the Letters and Philosophy University in Bucharest, at 21 years old, and went to India, at Calcutta, studying the sanscrite and yoga with Dasgupta. He was living in the house of his teacher and he have falled in love with Maitreyi, the daughter of his host (life experience which will be reflected in his first novel. He had returned in the country, after 3 years, and obtained his doctorate with a disertation about yoga. He was the universitary assistent of Nae Ionescu. In 1933 he had published the novel Maitreyi, which was a big succes (was awarded). He had a religions history course. Mircea Eliade had published the novels: ntoarcea din rai, Lumina ce se stinge, Domnisoara Christina, Nunta n cer, Secretul doctorului Honigberger and the story La tiganci. In 1940 he was cultural attach in London, and next in Lisbon. After the war he remained in exile in Paris and published his famous work Religions History Treatise (1949). From 1957, he had lived in Chicago where he was the head of the religions history department at the University. Begining with 1979 he had published his capital scientific work: The history of the religious believes and ideas, 3 volumes, for which the French state awarded him with the Honour Legion and the French Academy with Bordin Prize. He had wrote over 40 scientific studies (translated in 16 languages) and 20 novels, stories and short stories.

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