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calendar_month 06 Iun 2013, 00:00
An interesting feature of Kluckhohn’s definition of culture above is that it was originally written to define “culture” broadly, i.e., beyond work itself. Despite that wider, societal ambit however, the definition is often cited in narrower, occupational circles (e.g., Aycan & Kanungo, 2001: 390). Evidently, Kluckhohn’s definition of culture captures what for many scholars is an essence of culture, whenever it is found and wherever its influences manage to extend. In that sense, it provides us with a working definition of culture with which to begin this chapter.

A further interesting feature of Kluckhohn’s definition is that it excludes organizational climate. In this chapter too, culture is differentiated from climate, which consists more of atmospheric factors such as aggression, motivation, or trust (Moran & Volkwein, 1992). Climate factors such as these are discussed in detail later in the book, firstly under motivational gravity (Chapter 3), then as double demotivation (Chapter 4) and broken promises (Chapter 5), and, finally, as inverse resonance (Chapter 6). Underlying each of these climate-related processes, however, is the presence and influence of culture. Culture, therefore, comprises the underlying values and assumptions held, made, and above all lived on a daily basis within any work group (Ashkanasy, Wilderom & Peterson, 2000).