REFERAT ENGLEZA: MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION

Publicat: 28 Ian 2009 00:00

MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATIONManagerial communication cannot exist without management. It is a major, fundamental component of the latter. Each evolution stage of management determined specific forms of managerial communication. Due to the fact that the manager's attributions are varied and complex (as administrator, he organizes process at an organizatorical level, as leader, makes decisions, as entrepreneur takes action at the right moment for the good functioning of the organization), managerial communication becomes a real force, occupying a central place in the activity of any manager. It is compulsory that every manager develops and promotes a policy based on communication which permits him the permanent adjustment of the structure and organizational system to the changing conditions inside and outside the organization. Moreover, through his role of negotiator, of promoter of the organizational policy and its transmitter, the manager has to put together and maintain an entire network of contacts with the organization's partners, for the realization of external policies and an informational network useful for the maintenance of internal politics. In conclusion, modern management places a special emphasis on communication, as a vital component of the managerial system of any organization, either in the private sector (under the jurisdiction of private management) or in the public sector (private management). Managerial communication is a subdivision of interhuman communication, a leadership tool with the help of which the manager exerts his specific attributions: planning, training, organization, coordination, control, evaluation . As part of the leadership process (Henry Fayol added communication to planning, prevision, organization and command as one of the fundamental elements of management) , through which the manager understands subordinates making himself understood to them, managerial communication is oriented not only towsrds the transmission of messages, but also towards changing mentalities and their psychological adaptation to the institution's objectives. Managerial communication represents an auxiliary to management, placing in circulation information about decision results, which return to the decision centre, thus making possible the action comming to terms with objectives and results with planning. The importance of communication in organizations is owed also to the complex character that this process has at this level. Thus, in every organizational framework there are numerous communication networks, that is groups of communication channels in specific configurations which all form the communicational system. That is why communications have a big role in the decisional frame, of amplifying relationships between group components, of consolidating their cohesion. Managers fulfill 3 categories of roles: interpersonal, informational and decisional . Among these, informational roles, monitor, difusor, and spokesman, are those which define communication, but the informational character can be identified in the other roles also. Depending on the hierarchical level that the person occupies, communication might take 80% of his time. In conclusion, communication is everything in management, as long as on the quality of communication depends the understanding of each employee's problems, from manager to the clerk on the lowest hierarchical position. The durability of realtionships between them, the capacity of the manager to motivate and lead his subordinates but also the relations with the external environment of the organization are very important elements, from which precious information can be extracted for the well functioning of activities. One of the important components of management is represented by the exchange of informations and messages between the manager of the organization and subordinates, as well as between employees with the same hierarchical level, with no management attributions. The particularities of managerial communication in comparison with the other existent communication types are generated by the aim, objectives and roles of this communication, by the frame and structure of organizations as well as by the context of the organizational culture. Similarly, managerial communication in any type of organization is subject to certain ethical norms which are part in the organizational culture, in the organizational policies and obviously, in the individual ethics of the manager. Any employee with management attributions, in his quality of manager, controls how his decisions were implemented only if he communicates with executants. This is the only way subordinates can know what they have to do, when they have to do it and can make suggestions and raise problems. At the organizational level, especially those in the public sector, communication is done deficiently because of the too large bureaucratization which many times makes information pass through many hierarchical levels to arrive to the destinatary. Oftenly, top management lacks real information, being saturated with endless and meaningless reports which don't communicate anything. An efficient communication would take into consideration precisely the avoidance of situations like this, which burdens decision-making and problem-solving. Sometimes communication is deficient becase of a rigid system of communication. It has to be conceived as a dynamic organism, capable at any time to adapt to the information needs of employees. Managerial communication in any organization must inform correctly and efficiently vertically and horizontally. For this, in the managerial communication process there are certain communicational needs of any employee that need to be fulfiled: - need to know - professional knowledge necessary for accomplishing tasks or even the position; - need to understand - it is not enough to know how to do a certain thing, but also to know why it has to be done - need to express themselves - to bring your opinion to the knowledge of those in hierarchically superior positionsA very high percentage of the activities that a manager develops within an organization is represented by communication activities. This percentage varies depending on the hierarchical positions at whose level activities are developed, thus, the higher a position an individual occupies in the hierarchy, the larger the percentage of communication in his activities. As mentioned above, there various categories of roles that managers can fulfil: interpersonal, informational, decisional. Interpersonal roles refer to the managers' capacity to represent a certain department or direction in front of the other employees, to motivate and influence them, to create and maintain relationships internally and externally. Informational roles refer to the fact that managers have to be able to collect, monitorize, work out and transmit information inside and outside the organization, as well as between the organization and other institutions (ususally the PR department takes care of this). Decisional roles focus on the quality of enterpriser, capacity to solve problems, responsibility of allocating resources and capacity of negotiation. In conclusion, communication occupies a central role within management, with a spectacular evolution from an authoritarian, prescriptive communication (tells you what to do) towards a relational, democratic communication. Managerial communication has to focus on the realization of permanent managerial objectives, which have to be correlated with the functions of management: planning, organization, coordination, training, evaluation-control. For understanding the place and role of communication at the level of each function, we must know the significance of these functions at a managerial level. This helps in deciphering the structural mechanisms of any organization. a). At the level of general management, planning or prevision function consists of work processes through which the main objectives of the company are determined, as well as the resources and main means necessary for their achievement. The role of this function is to establish what has to be accomplished, how, by what means, in what conditions and time. These objectives are realized through planning according to the criteria: detailiation, obligativity and horizon, prognosis, plans and programes. It is obvious that the base for making up these prognosis, plans and programs consists of a large process of data collection, documentation and processing information, a communicational process, actually. In a nutshell, communication represents an essential component of the planning function, without which this could not be applicable. At an internal as much as external level it is unconceivable to exert the planning function without a real communicational support. This is because only through communication plans and action policies can be done, information can be transmitted at hierarchical levels, and employees can be trained in decision-making, by encouraging to take part in this process within meetings and discussions. b) The second function, organization, designates the management processes through which physical and intellectual work processes and their components (movements, time, operations, work, sessions) are established and delimited, as well as their grouping in jobs, work formations, compartiments and their assignment to personnel, according to certain managerial, economic, technical and social criteria, with the aim of better realizing the objectives. The role of the organizing function is to accomplish objectives previously established by efficiently combining human, material, informational and financial resources, by a correct occupation of jobs, at the level of compartments and of the whole organization. We observe the double valence of the organizing function: we speak of organizing of the whole institution as well as of each department, direction, office, service. At the same time, the organizing function means communication, means building formal relationships of the internal and extarenal informational system, means receiving, soliciting and using feedback. c) The coordination function at the level of general management consists of "the work processes through which the decisions and actions of the staff and its subsystems are harmonized within the previsions and the organizatoric system previously established". In the specialty literature, coordination is appreciated as being "a dynamic organization" thanks to the fact that:- the economic agent and the environment are undergoing continuous change which is impossible to reflect fully in foreseeings and in the organizatoric system;- staff reactions demand a permanent feedbackIn organizations, coordination function focuses on the collaboration of activities and optimally allocated resources with the aim of realizing objectives. In order to ensure a good coordination it is essential to have an adequate communication at every level of management in an organization. This communication has to focus mainly the transmission of information, the whole perception of the message. In its turn, for communication to be efficient, it depends on a series of factors like: - the quality of management (leadership style; the realism of objectives propsed through specific policies, the experience of managers, the concordance between their experience and the requirements of their positions) - quality of the excutive apparatus (their experience, aptitudes, interest for problem solving, receptivity degree)At the management level in an organizations the coordination function takes two shapes according to the criteria of communication making:- bilateral coordination - based on communication of a linear type, realized between manager and subordinate for obtaining a feedback; this is time consuming; - Multilateral communication - based on a communication of a network type, implying a large number of subordinates exchanging information with the manager; it is usually done in meetings. An interesting point would be to analyse meetings and meeting participants from a communicational point of view. This is a somewhat informal characterization of communication styles reflected in the personalities of participants, so we could say that communication can also depend on personality (although in a contextual manner).The characteristics of the meeting as a method:- has a strong formal character, because its objectives are directly linked about the objectives of the company; reunites participants which dispose of this formal competence required by the meeting and the unwinding of the meeting is consemnated in written; - inside the group thus constitued, usually, there are established ad-hoc and informal groups depending on personal interests;- the unrolling of the meeting requires, more than in the case of other methods, the communication and cooperation of participants; - directing the meeting requires psychological and entertainer abilities from its owner; - as it reunites people with different personalities and temperaments, being a good commandor of verbal, non-verbal communication and active listening is one of the major requirements of he who leads the meeting as a guarantee for the meeting to be a success.The long study of the behaviour of employees who participate in meetings uncovered the existence of several typical figures:- The vindictive has also something to reproach somebody with something. He is a serious guy who doesn't take amusement in the others' jokes, but laughs satisfied when he marks some points in the discussion. He smokes without asking if the others mind. His posture is marked by his chest lean forward, with his hands on the brim of the table. He looks as if he wanted to leave the meeting. This impression is carried by his continuously moving legs. He can create conflicts, tensions, by irritating the other participants' sensitivity.- The mediator is a calm, balanced guy. If his opinion is demanded, he doesn't haste to answer. Keeps a moment of silence, enough for the others to shut up in order to listen to him. His constant attitude evokes thinking and pondering. He sits straight on his chair. Moves with discretion. He is the one around which the core of the discussion can be established.- The scientist prepares carefully his interventions with tabels, figures, quotations. Very serious, does not laugh at any joke, because he simply considers them waste of time. He hates diggresions. Notes everything during discussions. He would like to speak, show his competence, but self-imposes certain rules in his interventions.- The talkative feels during meetings like the figh in the water. He laughs loudly at any joke. Comfortably sitted to occupy as much space as possible, never cares to take notes. He is always ahead those who do take notes and uses this time to talk. Does not impose restrictions in this respect. Looks at everything and everyone at the same time, without paying special attention to someone in particular. He is the one who can change the direction of discussions most easily.- The shy guy is frequently located next to the talkative. Usually has no spontaneous interventions. His attitude is crisped and does not know what to do with his body and appearance. He is afraid not to invade the vital space of his neighbours while they invade his. Look at the shy guy and you will make him blush and crisp even more. An introvertit, he is usually the owner of some good and original solutions, but making him speak up can prove to be real art.- The opponent is self-reserved, annoyed by everything and everyone and especially by the subject of the reunion. He is one of those who didn't ask for and doesn't want participation. His position is static. Arms are crossed, and sometimes frees an arm in order to drum his fingers on the table. He looks disgusted at the ones who intervene. Sometimes smiles shortly, which signals that he has an attack idea, but gives up immediately, because attacking means actually participating. He is against tobacco, if there are smokers, but asks for a cigarette break, if the others are non-smokers. Everything in his attitude is in contradiction with the present. He can create confusion, descourage, and transmit a hue of inutility and ridiculous. - The sleepy is not interested by anything in particular. An amorphous temperament, whose life flows almost symetrically, between naps and wake ups. He gets bored very easily. He keeps his eyes half-open and adopts a position which doesn't indicate clearly if he is awake or thinks. An unexpected intervention can transform him in a shocking vindicative. His presence in a reunion is superfluous. - The senior adopts a superiority position. Leaves the impression that his life is dedicated to much higher ideals. His position in the chair is rigid and upright. Silent, mysterious, with his eyes lost along on an imaginary line, he seeks a personal horizon outside the reunion. He refrains from talking, because the ones around don't deserve his attention anyway. His mimics express a slight disgust or a feeling of depression produced by the situation. His presence in a meeting can easily induce a feeling of inferiority to the other participants and fear to intervene so as not to be judged by this oracle. - The cunning examines the grounds and the participants with prudent and squinting looks. He listens to the discussion with great interest in order to grasp the moment of his intervention. The look slides away when he is looked straight into his face. If he confronts the looks of the meeting's leader it means he is ready to intervene. Usually his intervention is oriented towards other participant. The final kick will be a killing reply which will make him laugh heartily. His interventions can turn the discussions unpleasant. As the vindicative, he can generate conflicts, tensions among participants.Practice reveals that if managers ignore these human types and personalities, using a leveling towards them will lead oftenly to losses materialized in time losses, neverending debates and delays in problem-solving, conflicts and adversities between participants. It is clear that communication is a key defining and solutioning factor in meetings and not only. It goes higher to decision-making. That is why communication has to be very carefully planned and thought of, and specifically-oriented, meaning that the manager has to have such a degree of involvement and knowledge (of his organization and subordinates) that he can adapt his communication style to the style of the people who listen to him and with whom he interacts.d) Training includes the work processes through which the staff is determined to actively contribute to the establishment and accomplishment of planned objectives, always keeping in mind the staff's motivation. In other words, the training function in an organization accomplishes (through collaboration and motivation) a deeper involvement of employees. These desideratums can only be done through communication. e) Evaluation-control function can be defined as "the assembly of processes through which the performances of the organization, of its subsystems and components are measured and compared with the objectives and standards established initially, in order to eliminate deficiencies and integrate positive deviations". In organizations, the control activity allows deciosion makers to evaluate if the institution accomplished or not its objectives through the activities developed. This is made by means of a pertinent evaluation, based on formulated and precise criteria. This control can be done only if there is communication, because it is based on communicational processes: evaluation is done through tests and interviews, editing activity reports, formulating corrections etc. Due to the complementary character established between the management functions, due to the existence of interdependence between them, as well as between them and communication, the latter occupies a central place in the managerial system of any organizations. Any manager communicates aiming precise targets, which result from his own role. For fulfilling his role, the manager will use, consciously or not, the following functions of cummunication: - function of informing; - function of command and instruction;- function of influencing, persuading and advicing; - function of integration and maintenance. The function of informing refers to the fact that the manager receives two types of information: external and internal (circulating through formal and informal channels within the organization). Through the command function, the manager ensures the convergence of the other employees' actions aiming the accomplishment of the organization's objectives. Decisions and instructions ensure the alignment to the organizational policies, uniformity in practices and procedures, correctness of tasks. The function of influencing, persuading and advicing allows the manager to control the circulating information and the behaviour of the employees. The function of integration offers the manager the possibility to ensure the functionality of the departments he leads through the fluency of the informational flux and the good usage of communicational channels so as to avoid useless information. Communication between manager and subordinate represents a key point in the vertical ascendent or descendent communication in organizations. This shouls also allow subordinates to ask questions about the roles of their work and to come up with suggestions about improvement. Dar there always are communicational barriers in this communication, the most frequent being the status of the position and organizational stress. The effect of the status is that the managers lays too little price on communication with their subordinates, because it creates the tendency to communicate to people with similar positions. As a social and psychological element, especially an element of group psychology, there is a direct relation between the image that the collective staff and each of its member creates about the manager and the degree to which they accept his authority. Subordinates want to feel their manager sensitive to their expectations and feelings, to their ideas and suggestions, to inspire trust and respect through his attitude and behaviour. Likewise, there is the natural wish of subordinates to receive critical observations, but pertinent, in adequate places and moments. Tresspasing this wish unjustifiedly, can generate an inadequate work atmosphere. Nobody can lead nobody if he can't lead himself. Subordinates can't be fooled for much time, they get to know their manager quickly and appreciate him to his real value. They easily find out the managers' "weaknesses" and won't hesitate in taking advantage in their favour. Subordinates appreciate managers who make their lives easier at work, they appreciate managers through their own interests - want intelligent managers who speak their language, who can deal with any kinds of situations. This aspect can be dealt with by communicating fluently and adequately with subordinates - through communication anything can be achieved, even influencing the image that you have in your subordinates' eyes.In the case of organizations we can talk about a specific stress - organizational stress. Common causes are: inapplicable dispositions from superiors, pressing deadlines, lack of skills or training necessary for the job, aspirations for superior positions, familial tensions. Subordinates feel stressed because they are incompatible with their manager, of excessive responsibility delegations from managers, fear of not loosing their jobs. Investigations revealed mainly the following categories of potential effects of stress: subjective effects, behavioural effects, physiological effects, organizational effects . At group level, there are a series of consequences of conflicts generated by professional stress: modifications within the group, increasing group cohesion, the risk of an authoritarian leader emerging, increase in loyalty. The explanation for misunderstandings, disagreements and even conflicts lies in communication, and in the barriers that people arouse consciously or not in front of communication. Besides obstacles generated by managers, there are those generated by subordinates, which are closely related to the feeling of security and protection of subordinates. They will react promptly and efficiently to accomplishing tasks if the manager will involve in finding ways to stimulate this impulse. These ways, from the subordinates' point of view are: to treat them as intelligent human beings, not to undermine their authority, to be given tasks according to their preparation and skills, to be appreciated and receive feedback, to give credit to their suggestions, to be given attention if they have something to say, to be praised when they perform outstandingly. Pierre Lamaitre said: "Appreciation is necessary to the extent to which the praiser is responsible of the evaluation and appreciation of the human resources trusted to him" . This, applicable to managers, should be a clear outcome of their communicational skills and their practice.Certain qualities are needed in order to be a good manager. Not all the people is made for this profession. The skills and qualities required are depending on managerial competence, which refers to the manager's capacity to perform in his activities, not just do them. A competent manager must possess 3 types of skills: technical, conceptual and human. They refer to the manager's qualities to work with people and consist of being aware of one own's actions, perceptions and opinions, of seeing the utility and limits of one's own attitudes, emotions and feelings. There is a set of skills necessary for being named a good manager: double professionalization - reflected by the knowledge and qualities which emphasize the capacity to lead; the capacity of developing an efficient system of relationships, through which a positive favourable work climate is built; modelling one's own behaviour which would influence the subordinates' behaviour also and orient it towards performances; formal authority; creativity - necessary for delaing successfully with technological, social changes; resistance to pressing solicitations - decisional stress, deadlines, responsibility.Some conclusions can be designed therefore: the manager is a professional, behavioural and attitudinal model for subordinates and partners; he develops his own leading style, in accordance with his personality, experience and preparation and with the precise situation in which he has to take action; the manager must never forget that he takes action on people and the results obtained are not only his, but of the entire team; by his behaviour, he has to encourage change and creativity . We can affirm that in an organization, internal communication is influenced by a series of factors:a) organizational structure; b) the type of communication implemented; c) communicational barriers; d) the importance of informal communication; e) the manager-subordinate relationship; f) the climate of communication. We live and work together, that is why we have to know our needs and interests mutually. Mutual knowledge is the base of our existence. Any professional group has a leader, any institutions, irrespective of its profile and mission, has a certain structure. The entire activity of an organization is developed by people, employed according to specific principles, work criteria, with certain professional roles, have a status and a statute. And precisely because it is developed by people, any organization is founded primarily and inevitably on the principle of communication, in all directions and in all the senses possible. BibliographyFAYOL, Henry, Management general si industrialHINTEA, Calin, Management strategic in administratia publica, Ed. Gewalt, Cluj-Napoca, 2000LAMAITRE, Pierre, European Polyphony, St Martin's Press, New York, 1989MINTZBERG, Henry, The nature of managerial activity, 1973NICOLAE, Tudorel, Comunicare organizationala si managementul situatiilor de criza, Ed. Ministerului Administratiei si Internelor, Bucuresti, 2006SELYE, Henry, The Stress of Life, New York, Ed. McGraw-Hill, 1956TRIPON, Ciprian, Human Resouces Management, suport de curs

Trebuie sa citesti

Pictorul Fericit - primele elemente pentru a dezvolta un hobby
Pictorul Fericit - primele elemente pentru a dezvolta un hobby

Hobby-urile sunt cele care ne mentin activi de cele mai multe ori. Punctele de interes si motivatiile stau de cele mai multe ori in lucruri marunte. Uneori se merita sa muncesti cand stii ca la finalul orelor de munca ai parte de momentul tau preferat din zi, cand te ocupi de pasiunea ta. Printre

Ce trebuie sa stii inainte sa iti pui aparat dentar? Iata cate tipuri exista!
Ce trebuie sa stii inainte sa iti pui aparat dentar? Iata cate tipuri exista!

Tratamentul ortodontic implica utilizarea unui aparat dentar special conceput pentru a aplica presiune asupra dintilor si a-i aduce in pozitia corespunzatoare, a corecta muscatura si a imbunatati sanatatea bucala. Acest dispozitiv se poarta pe o perioada de unul sau doi ani, in functie de

Reduceri semnificative la numeroase modele de saltea yoga!
Reduceri semnificative la numeroase modele de saltea yoga!

Indiferent daca esti incepator sau avansat in aceasta practica straveche, cu accesoriile potrivite, sedintele de asane se pot schimba considerabil, devenind mai eficiente! Si, pentru ca acum poti gasi reduceri atractive la numeroase modele de saltea yoga si alegerea poate fi coplesitoare, iata

Apartamente in regim hotelier - cazarea ideala pentru studenti
Apartamente in regim hotelier - cazarea ideala pentru studenti

Înscrierea la facultate se apropie cu pași repezi iar elevii au început deja să își aleagă universitatea unde doresc să își continue studiile. București se află printre preferințele acestora datorită prestigiului pe care îl

Metodele eficiente care te tin in siguranta cand pleci la drum lung
Metodele eficiente care te tin in siguranta cand pleci la drum lung

Fie ca trebuie sa te deplasezi in vacanta, in afara orasului sau sa iti vizitezi rudele si sa pleci la drum lung, trebuie sa te pregatesti din toate punctele de vedere, ca sa ajungi cu bine la destinatie. Deci, ai nevoie de cateva masuri de precautie, in timp ce tii cont de anumite aspecte

Teste Online

Biologie,Botanica

Prin acest test doresc verficarea cunostintelor scolare,la sfarsit de clasa aVa este cel mai potrivit moment pt. revolvarea testului!

mai multe »